Discuss how you think the title “All Made Up” relates to what Harvey calls the “subject and focus” of the article.
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Rosalind C. Morris article “All Made Up: Performance Theory and the New Anthropology of Sex and Gender” relates to Gordon Harvey’s explanation of what a title should encase in his “Elements of the Academic Essay”. Harvey believes that a title should show the “subject and focus” of an article. Through the title that Morris chose it is clear that in the article she will discuss the difference between gender and sex and the challenges that arise between the two. Part of the title is ‘New Anthropology’ which foreshadows her debate on sex and gender. Morris introduces the story of Barbin to prove that even in the eighteenth century their was ongoing debate about sexuality and gender (Morris 568). Bourdieu’s, Sahlin’s and Certeau’s views on the topic are also mention to point out how complicated gender and sex are.
Rosalind C. Morris’ title, “ALL MADE UP: Performance Theory and the New Anthropology of Sex and Gender.” is self explanatory on what her thesis and subject of the article is. Morris believes that gender is made up through talk. We made something up called gender because we noticed that two bodies although similar in many ways were totally different in one distinct area. In our curiosity, we looked further into what it means to have a penis or to have a vagina. We then created sex as a way to classify and distinguish people who have a penis (called males), and people who have a vagina (females). She goes on to believe that there is a chance for us to change our classification because “our classification is only developed as we go through our everyday lives.” (Morris, 573) She actually specifies that the current role of gender is based out of western society and that “in other cultures there is no gender and activities performed in those cultures would be considered “Gender-bending” in our western society.”(Morris, 573) She goes on to give repeat examples and goes further into the topic of why our classification of gender is wrong and how recent scientific advances should change how we see gender because gender is not the same as it was before. Like Dreger (Alice Dreger; “Is Anatomy Destiny?”) she believes that our current definition and classification of male and female has either changed or in a radical view would never exist if we never appointed characteristics and behaviors to each one.
Rosalind C. Morris’ article title “All Made Up: Performance Theory and the New Anthropology of Sex and Gender” talks about gender being classified through outward or inward flesh, how it is wrong, develops a new theory and discusses more about how perception of sex and gender has evolved with time. Part of the title “All Made Up” refers to the wrong labeling of gender. Morris herself quotes from Laqueur saying a sex/gender system which uses the “visible organ” to classify, reduces to only what can be seen (Morris 3). Another possibility of what “All Made Up”refers to would be the gender performance theory which she would consider as “made up” because it wasn’t always a theory present in society before. The theory consists of putting a difference between “gender and sex” and also preventing conflict between an individual and his or her surroundings, she calls this “self- empowerment” (Morris 4, 15) These two are the subject and focus of the article and possibly could have been meant to define either of the two possibilities.
Rosalind C. Morris’ title of “All Made Up: Performance Theory and the New Anthropology of Sex and Gender” correlates with Harvey’s statement about the title giving the subject and motive of the essay because it gives the main idea of her essay. Her title suggests the essay is about the new advancements and discoveries made about human development. Specifically about the discoveries being made about geniality and about the differentiation between genders. Morris starts off by talking about the ongoing debates about the categorization of people by their genitalia and the effort to change that categorization. She furthers her point with the story about the eighteenth-century French hermaphrodite who, after living his/her life as a female, was forced to surgically become a single gender and not given the choice of which gender. (Morris, p.568). She also discusses one of the solutions being debated; creating a third gender. This third gender would be for those who don’t have the mundane genitalia. (Morris, p.581)
Gordon Harvey in the “Elements of the Academic Essay” states that the, “…title should give the subject and focus of the essay.” (G.Harvey, 3) The title of Rosalind C. Morris’s article, “All Made Up: Performance Theory and the New Anthropology of Sex and Gender” includes the subject and the focus of the article in the title. Morris in her article critiques the different theories of sexuality in society over time, and discusses those theories against the new anthropological approach to understanding sex and gender. Morris states, “The categories of sex and gender have fallen under the shadow of radical doubt and become the objects of an effort to retheorize the very nature of social subjectivity.” (R.Morris, 568) This is an example of how the title of this article provides the reader with an idea of its subject and focus.
Rosalind C. Morris’s article title, “All MADE UP: Performance Theory and the New Anthropology of Sex and Gender ” relates to what Harvey calls the “subject and focus” of the article. The title directly gives reader the subject is about sex and gender. Also the passage will be talking about what is the relationship between sex and gender, and how the anthropologists discussed the two subjects, and also how to get the new performance theory. What’ s more, the phrase “ALL MADE UP” can lead reader to know the theory is changed in different periods. The passage will claim different anthropologists will have different thoughts about the sex and gender. It breaks some people think the sex and gender is a fact and is immutable. It appeals to the reader to read this passage.
The title of the article “All Made Up: Performance Theory and the New Anthropology of Sex and Gender”, by Rosalind C. Morris, relates to what Gordon Garvey illustrates in “Element of the Academic Essay”, “Your title should give the subject and focus of the essay.” The term “All Made up” reveal the main idea of this article which is the concept of sex and gender. Furthermore, this title proves the readers the sense of how this article is going to be like and develop, and gives the readers an initial idea to think of during reading which helps the reader to organize their thoughts and recognize the theme. According to the article, “But in an age of surgical plasticity and prosthetic extension, it becomes necessary to rethink the nature of sexed bodies and gendered personhood on a new level.” Scientific advancement makes us realize that our previous thoughts about the definition of gender and sex are too general and oversimplified. Society is supposed to reconsider the way, which involves in not only biology but also anthropology, to distinguish the difference between sex and gender.
After reading Rosalind C. Morris’ “All Made Up” I think the title relates to the “subject and focus” of the article by telling the reader the many views and beliefs of classifying gender that it’s “all made up” in the end. Gender can have it’s “ambiguity” (Morris,page17) because of these many classes in gender other than male & female. The reader is exposed to many worldly different beliefs about drag, homosexuality and how there are even sub-classification’s in male and female i.e butch, femme. “Gender dichotomies can be imagined in a variety of ways, none of which are reducible to the absolute oppositions that contemporary biology posits in the so-called natural body.” (Morris,pg 3) in this quote Morris explains how there is a plain bias or falsehood in the way we perceive body and gender, showing that these were adopted as the norm but should not be accepted as truth. Throughout the article and Morris’ many examples one can see “genitality and gender are not only independent of each other, but shift constantly depending on the performative, which is to say social and political, context of the body.” Showing how the title “All Made Up” relates to the subject and focus of the article because gender is defined in many ways depending on culture, society and country one lives in.
The title of Rosalind C. Morris’ article, “All Made Up: Performance Theory and the New Anthropology of Sex and Gender,” directly relates to Gordon Harvey’s description of a title as granting the reader, “…the subject and focus of the essay.” The phrase “All Made Up,” gives the reader an idea that his subject matter, sex and gender, will focus on its pliancy. One may read the phrase as something that has already been fabricated, as an creation of man. Or one may read as a tool of irony, as if the idea of sex and gender is one that is immutable, which would allow him to go on to explain why that is not the case. Whichever way a person decides to read it will lead to the notion that the ideas of sex and gender will be contested. The phrase before the colon is one way, however vague, to direct the subject and focus of his article and the phrase following the colon is another; he implicitly and explicitly describes the major theme of his work. Therefore, the title as a whole allows the audience to get a lucid sense of what the article is going to be about.
Whoops, Rosalind C. Morris is female? Ironic that in our discussion of gender, I messed up the gender of the author. We should discuss the gender of names and their relation to the owner… Haha…..
Rosalind C. Morris’ article title, “ALL MADE UP: Performance Theory
and the New Anthropology of Sex and Gender,” relates to what Harvey calls the “subject and focus” of the article. She discusses her theory on the concept of sex and gender. “The theory of performativity defines gender as the effect of discourse, and sex as the effect of gender.” (Morris 567) The author criticizes society’s view that a person’s gender is determined by their genitals. That today, that can no longer be accurate. In the article, it is cited that because of the ability to change one’s body, “it becomes necessary to rethink the nature of sexed bodies and gendered personhood on a new level (62)” (Morris 568). Not only that, but the way a person identifies his/herself gives reason to do so. The case of a French Hermaphrodite helps Morris prove the necessity to change the modern take on sex and gender. After living life as a female, this person was forced to adopt a single gender, being assigned male. To Morris, what is “made up,” is the idea that sex and gender will never change.
Rosalind C. Morris’ article “All Made Up” describes the existence of gender and how it is defined with performativity theory. The article explains “the theory of performativity defines gender as the effect of discourse, and sex as the effect of gender.”(Morris. 567.) In other words, gender is simply the result of what people in society have determined and accepted it to be. Society has typically defined gender using geniality or the anatomy of a person. However, the mere concept is artificial and has no natural purpose other than to give people restrictions. People are forced into a certain group based on biological traits they have with no allowable exceptions. The article itself mentions the memoir of Herculine Barbin “An eighteenth century French “Hermaphrodite” … was forced by medical and legal authorities to adopt a single gender, which was reduced to anatomy and named as sex.”(Morris. 568.) Barbin was not given a choice as what gender he wanted to live as and would be forced to identify as male simply because of his genitals. Societies may have simply created a definition for gender to match traits to a person’s biology. There may be no factual reason for gender to exist or in essence gender is simply “made up” by society.
According to Rosalind C. Morris’ article, “ALL MADE UP: Performance Theory and the New Anthropology of Sex and Gender,” the author discusses key information regarding gender and sexuality. For example, Morris states that “Sex identity, once the bastion of nature, is no longer immune to ideological critique” (Morris 568). In other words, the author explains that gender is no longer as straightforward as it was years ago due to research and discoveries of new information on the sexual preferences and desires of others. Such advances has lead the author to support the theory of gender performativity, a theory that greatly theorizes on sex and gender. Morris describes the theory further by explaining that “… the theory of performativity defines gender as the effect of discourse, and sex as the effect of gender” (Morris 567). Essentially, what this means is the individual’s true sexual identity depends on who the person is having intercourse with, regardless of gender. Due to the topic being extremely sensitive, especially among the scientific community, Morris’ theory has been considered controversial with it’s radical and bold claims on human sexuality. It is because of this in which the title relates to the information within the article because of how different Morris ideal’s are compared to her contemporaries. If her theory is accepted, the concept of human sexuality will drastically change, for better or for worse.
The title “All Made Up” relates to the specific organs and genitals of the two genders. In the article, the subject would have to be gender itself. The author connects the two by demonstrating how each of them affects each other. The author talks about society’s view that a person’s gender is determined by their genitals. However, he examines the case of a French hermaphrodite who had lived her life as a woman, but was deemed a man for her genitals. Society did not acknowledge the hermaphrodites female side or her female genitals. As a result, hermaphrodites and transgender people can be seen as the focus of this article. The author even states, “Constitution of gender should focus on cases of seemingly ambiguous genders, whether these are institutionalized, temporary, or even theatricalized states.” (Morris 570) The author criticizes society’s beliefs by bringing up these people, who contain the genitals of both genders. As society claims, gender is based on the physical genitals of a person. The author asks, what happens if a person has both genitals and what if they have their genitals removed and replaced with the opposite genders genitals? These people contradict what society and proves the a person’s genitals alone cannot define a person’s gender.
Rosalind. C Morris’ article, “ALL MADE UP: Performance Theory
and the New Anthropology of Sex and Gender” identifies a central theory that ” gender is the effect of discourse, and sex as the effect of gender” (Morris 569). In other words, Morris thesis states that gender is based directly on who a specific person is having sex with and sex is directly related to the appeal of a specific gender. This theory seems to be somewhat controversial as it deviates from the normal theory that gender pertains to the “presence or absence of the phallus” (Morris 570). Although this theory is controversial, Morris presents adequate evidence backing his theory up. For example, Morris explains an account of a hermaphrodite who was assigned a specific gender based on anatomy. Although the French hermaphrodite lived a life as a male, they were assigned female after testing by doctors. Morris than argued that “the very perception of sex identity presumes a regulatory discourse in
which the surfaces of bodies are deferentially marked, signified, and charged
with sensitivity” ( Morris 568). Conclusively, the title “All Made Up” relates to the subject of the article because Morris’ theory states a brand new concept of what defines gender and sex.
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